• Kazakhstan firm responsible for second largest methane leak ever recorded

Leak Detection

Kazakhstan firm responsible for second largest methane leak ever recorded

Feb 27 2024

In a detailed investigation last year, a significant methane emission event was identified at a secluded drilling location in Kazakhstan, marking one of the largest leaks of its kind in recent history. According to the findings, a staggering 127,000 tonnes of methane were released following a drilling mishap that ignited a persistent fire, burning for more than half a year. Methane, known for its potent greenhouse effect, significantly overshadows carbon dioxide in terms of its potential to exacerbate global warming. 

Buzachi Neft, the entity overseeing the operation at the implicated site, has refuted claims regarding the magnitude of methane released. Contrarily, the environmental repercussions of this event have been likened to the carbon footprint of approximately 717,000 gasoline-powered vehicles operated over the course of a year, as per calculations by the US Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Equivalency Calculator. 

Manfredi Caltagirone, who leads the UN's International Methane Emissions Observatory, described the incident as extraordinary both in its scale and duration. The emergency began on June 9, 2023, amidst drilling activities in Kazakhstan's Mangistau region. The fire, triggered by a blowout, was not subdued until December 25, 2023. Efforts to permanently seal the well, including the use of cement, are ongoing, as reported by local governance. 

The leakage was initially detected and analyzed by Kayrros, a French analytics firm specializing in geoanalytics. Subsequent validations by the Netherlands Institute for Space Research and the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, corroborated the initial findings. Analysis of satellite imagery during the incident period revealed methane concentrations on 115 distinct occasions between June and December. 

This event is posited as the second most severe anthropogenic methane leak recorded, second only to the methane emissions resulting from the 2022 Nord Stream pipeline sabotage. Methane's role in global warming has been underscored by the International Energy Agency, which attributes approximately 30% of the increase in global temperatures since the Industrial Revolution to this gas. 

Despite the significant evidence presented by multiple satellite observations and corroborations by scientific institutions, Buzachi Neft disputes the findings, suggesting that any methane that might have been released was burned off, leaving only water vapor visible from satellite imagery. However, local environmental authorities have recorded methane concentrations exceeding legal limits on several occasions following the initial blowout, further supporting the extensive nature of the leak. 

In the aftermath, the incident has drawn scrutiny towards Kazakhstan's oil and gas industry, highlighting the potential for future methane leaks given the country's projected increase in natural gas production. The event not only underscores the environmental risks associated with fossil fuel extraction but also emphasizes the importance of satellite technology in monitoring and mitigating such risks. 

Kazakhstan's response to this and similar incidents includes a commitment to the Global Methane Pledge, aiming to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030. This incident serves as a stark reminder of the urgent need for enhanced regulatory oversight, technological advancement, and international cooperation to address the complex challenge of methane emissions and their impact on global warming. 


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IET 34.2 March 2024

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